Purpose of Freezing Panes
The freeze panes feature allows one or more columns or rows to remain fixed while the rest of the workbook is free to scroll. This feature is especially useful when working with large workbooks. Freeze Panes can be used at any time during document development and panes will remain frozen when a workbook is shared.
Freeze panes is turned on and off by choosing the Freeze/Unfreeze Panes command in the Edit menu. The cells that become frozen depends on what is selected when Freeze Panes is turned on.
Selecting an Area to Freeze or Unfreeze
Selecting a column will freeze the column and all columns to the left of the selected column. You can select the column by choosing the letter at the top of the column. To Unfreeze the columns, simply choose the Edit tab, then Unfreeze again in the toolbar.
If you choose the top cell in the column, the column to the left will be frozen, but not the column for the chosen cell. Now you can scroll horizontally to compare data in different columns as needed.
Selecting a row will freeze the selected row and all rows above the selected row. Select a row using the row indicator to the left (in this example, row 11). Choose Edit> Freeze again. Rows 1 through 11 are now frozen and we can scroll horizontally. You can unfreeze by choosing the Edit>Unfreeze option again. If you select a cell in column A, it will freeze only the rows above the one selected.
Selecting a cell deeper in the workbook will freeze all rows above the selected cell and all columns to the left of the selected cell. In this case you can scroll both vertically and horizontally.
Freezing allows you to scroll both horizontally and vertically while the chosen rows or columns remain displayed. Keep in mind that frozen panes in workbooks will persist when shared.